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航空公司为啥会拉货OFFLOAD

拉货=offload那么今天,我们就来探讨下航司的业务逻辑。



拉货的因素


了解为什么会拉货,必须了解造成拉货的因素。不过,在展开说之前,一定要先搞清楚,我们现在讲的只是普货的情况。其他特殊货物都是要另外考虑。例如,飞机上有人体器官,人类遗体或者活体动物。这种货物优先度最高的。不管飞机上有什么其他货物,这些特殊货物是必须优先安排。其次,除了特殊货物,还有用高价或者Premium服务的,也肯定是优先飞。这些货物的优先度,仅次于特殊货物,高于除了BSA以外的一切普货。premium服务,就是保证时效,一定要飞的货物。当然这种货物的空运费...嗯 几乎要上天了。不然怎么会叫Premium呢。不过,高价格的存在不仅是合理,而且是必须存在的。接下来我们探讨下这个话题。


Factors of Offloading


To understand why goods can be offloaded, we must understand the factors of offloading. However, before we start to talk about it, we must make it clear that what we are talking about is the situation of ordinary goods. Other special goods are to be considered separately. For example, there are human organs, human remains or living animals on the plane. This kind of goods has the highest priority. No matter what other goods are on the plane, these special goods must be prioritized. Secondly, in addition to special goods, there are also high prices or premium services, which must be priority flights. The priority of these goods is second only to special goods and higher than all general goods except BSA. Premium service is to ensure the timeliness of goods that must fly. Of course, the air freight for this kind of goods... Well, it's almost up to heaven. Otherwise, how could it be called premium? However, the existence of high prices is not only reasonable, but also necessary. Let's talk about this next.


1 合约形式


能造成拉货的因素有很多,首当其冲的肯定是合约的形式。如果交的是BSA allotment以内的货,当然是不会被拉货的,因为BSA都拉货了,航司是要赔钱的。所谓allotment,就是合约上规定好一定要给到的板位。如果大家忘记了什么是BSA,可以点击这里回顾我们之前的课程。但如果是allotment以外的,那就没准了。所以在所有上航班的货物里,只有两种货物,一个是allotment货物,一种是非allotment货物。知道了这个首要因素之后,大家在交货时已经心中有数了。因为只要是allotment仓位的,都不会被拉货的。如果是非allotment呢?就不一定了。接下来我们看一看非allotment货物的情况。


1 Form of contract


There are many factors of offloading.The first one must be the form of contract. If the goods are delivered within the BSA allocation, of course, they will not be offloaded. Because the BSA has been offloaded, the airline will lose money. The so-called allocation is the board that must be given in the contract. If you forget what BSA is, you can click here to review our previous courses. But if it's outside of allocation, it's not possible. So there are only two kinds of goods in all the flights, one is allocation goods and the other is non allocation goods. After knowing this primary factor, you already know it when you deliver the goods. Because as long as it is in the allocation position, it will not be offloaded. What if it's an allocation? Not necessarily. Let's take a look at the situation of non allocation goods.


2 货型结构


说起这个,相信很多小伙伴都能记起我们之前说过的文章。是的,就是货型结构。为何货型结构可能会导致拉货呢?如果货型不好,造成板内打不完,或者要用到其他的板,而且不好跟其他货物一齐拼板。那么,打板的时候,就容易造成空间的浪费,以及其他货物的分散性。试想,如果为了一票货,让其他很多货物都要受到影响,不能整票装上飞机的话。那问题不是其他货,而就是这票货。比如,有一票货,是100个托,每块LD只能装6托,那么光这票货就要装16块LD。假如这些板上都不能再堆其他货,最后就会导致浪费板位。再者,从航司的角度来看,这个航班如果全部飞这100个托,那么load factor该有多难看啊。所以,为了能够让其他散货都整票飞出去,同时尽量的提高load factor,这个100个托盘的货就不可能一批清的。这样一来,这票货就会被拉下一部分了,甚至整票货拉下,等有好的货型时候再和他拼板一起出。

oh 对了。顺便解释下专业名词。Load Factor,讲的就是一个飞机的最终装载率。它是衡量飞机装载情况的重要依据。一个航班的成绩表要好看,首先它的load factor要好看。这时有些小伙伴会有疑问,那么revenue呢?这个问的好。Revenue肯定也很重要,但是load factor是大前提,没有load factor来讲revenue是不切实际的。大家可以想想,如果load factor很差,但revenue很高,这种情况唯一的可能性就是整台机都是装泡货。这样,航司总部就要劈死local办公室的人的。


2 Cargo structure


Speaking of this, I believe that many of my friends can remember the articles we said before. Yes, it's a cargo structure. Why is the cargo structure likely to lead to offloading? If the cargo structure is not good, it will lead to a lot of holes in the board, or other boards will be used, and it is not good to put the boards together with other goods. Then, when making the board, it is easy to cause the waste of space and the dispersion of other goods. Imagine that for one ticket, many other goods would be affected, and the whole ticket could not be loaded on the plane. The problem is not other goods, but this one. For example, if you have one lot of goods, it's 100 pallets, and each LD can only hold 6 pallets, then only this lot of goods will hold 16 LD. If these boards can no longer stack other goods, it will lead to waste of board position. Moreover, from the perspective of the airline, if this flight flies all of these 100 carriers, how ugly the load factor would be. Therefore, in order to make other bulk cargo fly out in full and improve the load factor as much as possible, it is impossible to clear the cargo of this 100 pallets in one batch. In this way, some of the goods will be pulled down, or even the whole bill of goods will be pulled down. When there is a good type of goods, they will go out together with him.

Oh yes. Explain the technical terms by the way. Load factor refers to the final loading rate of an aircraft. It is an important basis for measuring aircraft loading. A flight's score sheet should look good. First, its load factor should look good. At this time, some little friends have questions. What about revenue? That's a good question. Revenue is also very important, but load factor is the main premise, and it is unrealistic without load factor. You can think that if the load factor is poor, but the revenue is high, the only possibility is that the whole machine is filled with bubble goods. In this way, the headquarters of the airline will kill the people in the local office.


货运代理业绩


是的,我们又到了Agent Performance了。关于这个,我们前课程也有提过。看吧,跟大伙说了,不要临急抱佛脚,平时要主动多交货,想把航线做好,不是嘴上说的,是靠货量堆起来的。如果现在手上的货都是同样优先级别的,那拉谁的货好呢?如果是我,当然是要拉平时不交货的代理。如果一直有坚持交货,拉他货的话,无论道理还是人情都说不过去啊。在淡季都努力交货,旺季肯定忘不了你。假如旺季真的不够位了,至少你的货也上的比别人多,那已经是赚到了。所以一定要记住,货,一定要持续的交!


 3 Agent Performance


Well,we're back at agent performance. We also mentioned this in our previous course. See, I told you, don't rush to rush. Usually, you should take the initiative to deliver more goods and try to make a good route. It's not what you say, it depends on the quantity of goods. If the goods on hand are of the same priority, whose goods are good? If it's me, of course, it's the agent who usually doesn't deliver the goods. If we always insist on delivery and pull other goods, no matter the reason or the human feelings, we can't say it. Try to deliver goods in the off-season. You will never forget in the peak season. If the peak season is really not enough, at least your goods are more than others, that's earned. So we must remember that the goods must be delivered continuously!


4 价格


ok讲到这里,就要看谁的价格高了。如果两票货除了单价,其余情况都一样。但只能走一票。那要怎么选呢?正常的情况下,是走单价高的那票。因为航司也要performance啊。拉了高价的那票,航司也交待不了。不止总部交待不了,和客人也交待不了。这里我们要分开情况来看,如果只是因为价格高,也不是能保证一定上飞机的。刚刚第三点说了,人家在淡季的时候,支持了那么多,亏了那么多,现在旺季来了,航司也要支持人家的啊。不然以后还有谁敢跟这个航司合作呢?不过你的优先度比不加钱的那些要高,这是实话。但是,如果高价的我们一开始讲的premium服务的话,那就不好意思了。因为premium服务的优先度是非常的高。换句话说,如果你淡季很支持,但在旺季的时候,满仓都是premium货,这时你的优先度也会随之降低的。不过航司也会酌情给你仓位,不用太过担心,因为定规则的是人,执行规则的也是人。毕竟是人,肯定都是讲道理讲感情的。况且,满仓都是premium的情况在国内很少见。香港倒是有过。因为香港市场规范,大家都会跟着这些规则来玩,那premium就大家一齐premium咯。所以,真正要玩,像香港这样,有规矩才好玩嘛。


4 Price


OK, it depends on whose price is high. If two bills of goods are the same except for the unit price. But only one vote. How to choose? Under normal circumstances, it's the ticket with high unit price. Because airlines also need performance. The airline can't handle the high ticket. Not only the headquarters, but also the guests. Here we have to separate the situation. If it's just because of the high price, it's not guaranteed to get on the plane. As I just said in the third point, when they are in the off-season, they have supported so much and lost so much. Now that the peak season is coming, the airline should also support them. Otherwise, who dares to cooperate with this airline in the future? But your priority is higher than those without money, which is true. However, if the high price of the premium service we talked about at the beginning, it would be embarrassing. Because the priority of the premium service is very high. In other words, if you are very supportive in the off-season, but in the peak season, the full warehouse is all premium goods, then your priority will also be reduced. However, the airline will also give you a position as appropriate. Don't worry too much, because it's people who make rules and people who enforce them. After all, it's human. It must be rational and emotional. Moreover, it is rare in China that full warehouses are all premium. Hong Kong has. Because the Hong Kong market is standardized, everyone will follow these rules to play, so premium is all together. So, it's really fun to have rules like Hong Kong.


5 停机坪落货


这个词可能大伙比较陌生,但是现实情况是存在的。last minute offload就是本来有计划要上飞机的,但是在最后还是没装上。这就要看情况了。也会有很多因素造成的。

例如,原计划这个板确实要上飞机,但是在把板拉去机底的过程中,拖头司机开快了,导致整板货变型,就上不了机。这样,就只能怨自己命苦了。当然,这种情况一般不会出现的,因为司机是属地勤的,地勤如果出现这种情况,会遭严肃处理的,写检讨扣工资什么的...因为这是属于严重的作业事故。所以这种状况是少见的。当然,不单止司机原因,可能这块板本来就打的不好,轻微动下就散架。这事就更复杂了,要划分责任,假如是打板没打好,为什么货站没有检查出来?那就是货站打板人和监督的责任。板交到司机那里,如果是司机没有检查出来,那是司机责任。如果是司机开太快了导致变型了,也是司机责任。最后,如果整个过程没有人检查出问题,到机底才发现问题,那么整个地面代理公司都有问题,这个是公司层面监督和管理流程的问题啊。


还有另一种情况,这块板最后没上飞机。之后告诉你,受天气影响。什么?天气也会影响你的货?对的,不过这里跳过了很多步。我来解释一下。本来飞机上已经预留了这块板的位置,但是由于目的地机场或者航程中的某一段,天气非常恶劣,机长决定要加大油。通过加大油来通过那段恶劣天气的航段。飞机的payload就那么大了,加油多了,货物的业载就会随之变少。这情况通常都是最后一刻才知道的。航司的销售人员也下班了,现场工作人员就会根据装机单上,根据拉货重量找最接近的板重选一块板拉下。举个简单易懂例子(下面数字是编的,实际上不大可能会出现这些数字)比如,计划payload是20吨,现在要多加5吨油,那么就要拉货5吨对吧?这个时候有两块板,一块7吨的板,另一块3吨的板。7吨板是standby的,3吨板是must go的。怎么办呢?拉3吨的肯定不够,不用想了只能拉7吨的了,不然飞机都无法起飞了。这一刻,也不可能再拆板重新打了,完全不够时间,也影响航班的准点率。所以,现场操作的工作人员,只能选择拉下7吨的板,最后飞机才能顺利准点起飞。


5 Last Minute Offload


The word may be unfamiliar to all, but the reality is there. Last minute offload was originally planned to get on the plane, but it was not installed in the end. It depends. There will also be many factors.

For example, it was originally planned that this board would indeed get on the plane, but in the process of pulling the board to the bottom of the plane, the tractor driver drove fast, resulting in the whole board cargo variant, so it could not get on the plane. In this way, I can only complain about my own life. Of course, this kind of situation will not occur in general, because the driver belongs to the ground service. If this happens, the ground service will be seriously dealt with. Write a review on salary deduction... Because this is a serious operation accident. So this is rare. Of course, it's not just the driver's reason. Maybe the board is not good in the first place, and it will break up when it's moved slightly. It's more complicated. We need to divide the responsibilities. If the beating is not done well, why hasn't the goods station checked out? That's the responsibility of the beating person and the supervisor of the goods station. Board to the driver, if the driver did not check out, it is the driver's responsibility. If the driver drives too fast, it is also the driver's responsibility. Finally, if no one checks out the problem in the whole process and finds the problem at the bottom of the machine, the whole ground agency company has problems. This is the problem of supervision and management process at the company level.


In another case, the board didn't get on the plane at last. I'll tell you later, affected by the weather. What? The weather will also affect your goods? Yes, but there are many steps skipped here. Let me explain. The position of this board has been reserved on the plane, but due to the bad weather at the destination airport or some part of the voyage, the captain decided to add more fuel. Pass that bad weather leg by adding more oil. The aircraft's payload is so big. If you refuel more, the cargo load will be less. This is usually known at the last minute. When the sales staff of the airline company is off duty, the on-site staff will find the closest plate according to the loading weight and select a plate to pull down. Take a simple and easy to understand example (the numbers below are compiled, which are unlikely to appear in fact). For example, if we plan to add 5 tons of oil to the payload of 20 tons, then we need to pull 5 tons of goods, right? At this time, there are two boards, one is 7 tons, the other is 3 tons. The 7-ton board is standby and the 3-ton board is must go. What should I do? I'm sure it's not enough to pull 3 tons. I don't need to think about it. I can only pull 7 tons, otherwise the plane can't take off. At this moment, it's impossible to dismantle the board again. It's not enough time at all, which also affects the punctuality rate of the flight. Therefore, the field operators can only choose to pull down the 7-ton board, and finally the plane can take off on time.





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